In a variation of Milgram' study two other participants confederates were also teachers but refused to obey. Situational Factors The Milgram experiment was carried out many times whereby Milgram varied the basic procedure changed the IV.
Their passion often leads them to acquire significant expertise in their areas of interest, thereby increasing their ability to persuade from a position of authority. Milgram also interviewed the participants one year after the event and concluded that most were happy that they had taken part.
Williams wore a laboratory coat a symbol of scientific expertise which gave him a high status. For example a person may feel pressurised to smoke because the rest of their friends are. For example, America is an individualist culture were people are generally less conforming and the results maybe different in collectivist cultures such as Asian countries.
Majorities tend to exert normative social influence, whilst minorities tend to use informational social influence. For example, when participants were reminded that they had responsibility for their own actions, almost none of them were prepared to obey. The role of social influence processes in social change.
This means that more and more people adopt the minority opinion, until gradually the minority becomes the majority. Other guards joined in, and other prisoners were also tormented.
They argue that the key is how the majority interprets consistency. All he did was alter the situation IV to see how this affected obedience DV. Their experiment was based on a mock jury in which groups of three participants and one confederate had to decide on the amount of compensation to be given to the victim of a ski-lift accident.
He found that when the task was carried out in a social group, the participants would report estimates of roughly the same value even though they had previously reported quite different estimates as individuals. The studies findings cannot be applied to female prisons or those from other countries.
Signs of tension included trembling, sweating, stuttering, laughing nervously, biting lips and digging fingernails into palms of hands.
Given their size, there is more likely to be dissenting voices within any majority. With regard to Milgram' study the experimenter is seen as having legitimate authority as he has scientific status.
Instead of lines, the participants judged aloud the color and brightness of a series of 36 colored slides all were blue with varying luminosity. For a study on internalisation refer to Jenness see below. This type of conformity extends over several aspects of external behavior.
Variables affecting conformity including group size, unanimity and task difficulty as investigated by Asch. The confederates were told to consistently state "green" rather than "blue. This means that the minority must be clear on what they are asking for and not change their minds, or disagree amongst themselves.
A strength of the study is that it used a standardised procedure because it was a lab experiment. Milgram did more than one experiment — he carried out 18 variations of his study. If they do not do this, they will be ignored as a bunch of individual eccentrics.
The majority opinion then becomes law, and people have to obey this law. Normative influence tends to lead to compliance because the person smokes just for show but deep down they wish not to smoke.
They behaved in a brutal and sadistic manner, apparently enjoying it. As a result they could not give informed consent. However, when he compromised and moved some way towards the majority position, the majority also compromised and changed their view.
For example I did well on the exams because I revised extremely hard. In addition Zimbardo did conduct debriefing sessions for several years afterwards and concluded they were no lasting negative effects. Identification AO1 Identification occurs when someone conforms to the demands of a given social role in society.
This shows when there is less personal responsibility obedience increases. To study the roles people play in prison situations, Zimbardo converted a basement of the Stanford University psychology building into a mock prison. Oct 23, · "The message must be perceived as coherent, different, plausible, natural, corresponding to reality, and objective," wrote Serge Moscovici in his "Social influence and conformity" in the Handbook.
Initially, Moscovici's conversion theory of minority influence began as a minority opinion that was rejected by many researchers, but eventually members of opposition validated it, thus confirming the theory's exact predictions.
Asch's studies highlighted the power that majorities have over groups and their subsequent conformity, but Moscovici was more interested in the power exerted by minorities. The study of minority influence began as reaction to the portrayal of influence as the province of status and numbers and from a realization that minorities need not just be passive recipients of influence but can actively persuade.
From these beginnings, a considerable body of research, including ours, has investigated how minority views prevail. Minority Influence Minority influence occurs when a smaller group over time is able to persuade the majority to join their side.
A type of social influence, this topic was researched in depth by Moscovici. cross-level link between indirect minority influence and social change. Indirect minority influence Social psychological mechanisms for minority influence were most prominently proposed by Moscovici (,; Moscovici & Faucheux, ).
Conversion theory (Moscovici. Moscovici, a social psychologist, emphasized the role of minority influence.
If nothing ever changed, if the majority always ruled, then we would all still be living in caves and eating raw.Turner and moscovici disagree over the minority influence