AO2 evaluation of serotonin as a cause of aggression Brown et al found that the cerebrospinal fluid of people showing high levels of aggressive behaviour tends to have low levels of a waste product of serotonin, indicating they may have low levels of serotonin in the brain.
Testosterone is a male hormone that is often considered and important factor of aggressive behaviour. Testosterone has been associated with aggressive behaviour, although most studies have been corelational only. Correlations do not show causal links, and therefore another factor may mediate both the level of hormone or neurotransmitter and observed aggression, for example alcohol can influence both serotonin levels and aggression.
Testosterone also influences the levels of other hormones which are thought to be involved in aggression, such as vasopressin. An alternative to low levels of serotonin as a cause of aggression is low serotonin metabolism the ability to recycle serotonin at the synaptic cleftwhich in turn leads to developing a greater number if serotonin receptors.
All of which have been performed on animals due to methodological and ethical issues with testing on humans. Individuals act aggressively when their intent is to inflict injury, whereas they act dominantly if their wish is to achieve.
Likewise social psychological theories of aggression, e. Another hypothesis is that cortisol, and therefore feelings of stress, mediate the acts that people carry out, but that some people produce less cortisol and therefore feel less stressed when committing acts of violence against others.
The complexity of human behaviour means that biological explanations are insufficient on their own to explain the many different aspects of human aggression.
Discuss neural and hormonal mechanisms in aggression. They found that people with low levels and who experienced maltreatment as a child were highly likely to become aggressive later.
For example, cingulated gyrus is linked to fear-induced aggression in monkeys, but to irritability in cats and dogs, creating problems in trying to generalise in humans and to identify aggression. Observational studies of children have shown that they tend to become more aggressive once they enter puberty and their testosterone levels rise.
From the male responses negative mate retention techniques were positively correlated with violence scores. It is thought that testosterone may influence areas of the brain that control behavioural reactions, such as the amygdala and the hypothalamus.
When serotonin levels are low, this inhibitory effect is removed and people are less able to control their aggressive behaviour. SSRIs also tend to reduce irritability and impulsive aggression.
An issue with much of the research done on hormonal reasons for aggression were samples from prisons, so are not representative of the population. Low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin have been associated with an increased susceptibility to impulsive and aggressive behaviour.
Discuss the Role of Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms in Aggression Discuss the Role of Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms in Aggression 9 September Psychology Support that serotonin leads to aggressive behaviour has been found, as human and animal research suggest that serotonin levels influence aggression and violent behaviour.
A disadvantage of the theory of hormonal mechanisms as an explanation of aggression is that as all the research is Correlational, we cannot prove causality. Aggression refers to the intent to inflict injury, while dominance is the desire to achieve or maintain status over another.
The moderating effect of cortisol on aggressive behaviour is supported by a four-year study of boys with behavioural problem. They were told that, by pressing a button they could reduce the amount of cash that another participant was receiving.
The results also cannot be repeated and so are not entirely reliable. They found that people with low levels and who experienced maltreatment as a child were highly likely to become aggressive later. This hormone is found in both men and women, but in larger quantities in men.
Discuss neural and hormonal mechanisms in aggression. (8 marks + 16 marks) You should outline and evaluate the link between aggression and neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, and hormones such as testosterone and cortisol.
Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms in Aggression Aggression in humans has been associated with low levels of serotonin and high levels of dopamine. Usually, serotonin has a calming effect, which inhibits aggression. When serotonin levels are low, this inhibitory effect is removed and people are less able to control their aggressive behaviour.
Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms in Aggression Essay Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms in Aggression Aggression in humans has been associated with low levels of serotonin and high levels of dopamine. Usually, serotonin has a calming effect, which inhibits aggression.
Ghrelin is a hormone which is released when the stomach is empty so it triggers eating. The second most important hormone is leptin and this is released from adipocytes, and the more fat a person has the more leptin is released and it acts as a satiety signal so stops food intake.
It ignores other factors such as culture which has shown to cause aggression as a result of socialisation e.g. the Simba tribal people. Discuss the role of neural and hormonal mechanisms in aggression. Discuss the neural and/or hormonal mechanisms in aggression (8 marks + 16 marks) Aggression is a behavior directed towards another intended to harm or injure.
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that enable impulses in the brain to be transmitted from one area of the brain to another.Neural and hormonal factors in agression essay